How Good Sleep Can Boost Weight Loss

Sleep may be just as important as diet and exercise to a healthy weight. People who get fewer than seven hours of sleep tend to weigh more. Are you one of the 40% of adults getting fewer than 7 hours of sleep a night or one of the 30% getting by on less than 6 hours?

Cutting short sleep time can increase weight. Here’s how that works:

Poor Appetite Control

A lack of sleep gets the hunger hormones out of whack. There’s more ghrelin (the hunger hormone), more cortisol (a stress hormone which can increase hunger), and less leptin (the fullness hormone). The change in these hormones can set up a raging appetite that difficult to tame.

A Foggy Brain

Skimping on sleep dulls decision-making and impulse control. Food looks more appealing because the reward centers of the brain become overstimulated. It’s a double whammy – the brain craves the food and lacks the controls to make wise decisions.

More Calories

More calories come from the increase in hunger and appeal of food, dulling of fullness signals, and limited self-control that comes with a lack of sleep. Besides, having more time awake means more time to snack and does increase calorie intake.

A Sluggish Metabolism

Skimping on sleep hits the body with an immediate hit to the metabolism by slowing the rate at which the body burns calories. Long-term, a lack of sleep lowers muscle mass reducing metabolism further.

Less Motivation to Exercise

Exercise motivation is challenging for most after getting plenty of sleep. Without quality sleep, exercise suffers.

Cells Become More Resistant to Insulin

With only a few nights of poor sleep, the ability to regulate blood sugar plummets as cells become insulin resistant. Insulin resistance means higher blood sugar, more insulin, increased hunger, and more fat storage.

Make Sleep a Top Priority

Give sleep the attention it deserves. Here are some tips for improving your sleep:

  • Follow a consistent bedtime routine
  • Establish a relaxing setting at bedtime
  • Shoot for 7-8 hours of sleep every night
  • Stay away from caffeine or any other stimulants before bedtime
  • Keep your mind off problems or worries at bedtime
  • Avoid going to bed hungry or too full
  • Exercise earlier in the day – not within six hours of bedtime
  • Make your bedroom quiet, dark, and a little cool
  • Get up at the same time every morning
  • Turn off lights and electronics



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What is the Role of Exercise in Weight Loss?

Some people love it. Most people don’t. Who has the time? Does it even matter anyway?  Here’s the real scoop on exercise and weight loss and why you should find the time and motivation to make it work for you. 


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Weight Loss is Complicated

If only it were as simple as calories in and calories out, but it is not. Dieting is a battle between the mind and the body. The mind decides that excess weight is causing all kinds of health and emotional issues and needs to go. But, the body isn’t on board with the mind’s plan for weight loss. After all, that extra weight will help you survive the next famine.  When calories are cut, the body fights back by:

  • Reducing levels of leptin (the fullness hormone)
  • Increasing levels of ghrelin (the hunger hormone)
  • Slowing metabolism so calories are used more efficiently – an effect that can last for years
  • Making food look and smell more enticing
  • Reducing energy, increasing irritability, and keeping the mind fixated on food 

Bariatric Surgery Tips the Scale in Your Favor

A tiny percentage of people lose weight and keep it off in the long-term with diet and exercise alone. Bariatric surgery disrupts the body’s stronghold on obesity. It reduces food intake, but that is just the beginning. A host of physical and hormonal changes occur that significantly increase the odds of long-term weight loss.

Bariatric surgery works to overcome the body’s resistance to weight loss. It is even more powerful when combined with regular exercise, a healthy diet, and other positive lifestyle habits.

Benefits of Losing Excess Fat

Bariatric surgery makes weight loss much more likely. Great – that’s the goal. When excess fat is lost, a slew of benefits are gained, including:

  • Better blood sugar/insulin regulation
  • Lower risk of heart disease
  • Lowered blood pressure
  • Improved cholesterol levels
  • Decreased risk of heart disease and stroke
  • Reduced risk of certain cancers
  • Improved mobility
  • Reduced joint and back pain
  • Decreased risk or improvement in symptoms of osteoarthritis
  • Improvement of sleep apnea

Lose Weight, Lose Muscle?

But, when the body loses fat, it also loses muscle, and that’s a problem. Muscle loss can have adverse effects, including:

  • Reduced balance and increased risk of falls
  • Decreased ability to walk and exercise
  • A loss of heart tissue—remember the heart is a muscle too
  • Increased risk of infections
  • Poor insulin and blood sugar regulation
  • A shorter life span—a higher ratio of muscle to fat improves life expectancy
  • Slowed metabolism–muscle mass is the most significant factor impacting the rate at which your body burns calories 

Look for Fat Loss, Rather than Weight Loss 

The goal then is to maximize fat loss while minimizing muscle loss. Two behaviors can help accomplish this goal: 1) meeting daily protein goals and 2) getting regular exercise.

To meet daily protein goals:

  • Eat six small protein-rich meals throughout the day.
  • Eat protein first at each meal, balanced with small servings of vegetables, fruits, and whole grain.
  • Obtain the majority of daily protein with lean meat/fish/poultry, low-fat dairy, and beans. Use protein supplements if unable to meet your protein goal with foods.

In addition to meeting daily protein goals, regular exercise is the other key to maximize fat loss and minimize muscle loss.

How Does Exercise Help Keep Muscle Tissue?

Muscle size increases when it is challenged with higher levels of resistance or weight. During exercise, muscle fibers are injured. The body repairs the damaged muscle fibers by fusing them, increasing their strength and size. Regular activity also enables the hormones needed for muscle growth to be more effective.

Other Health Benefits of Exercise

Regular exercise has benefits that go beyond weight control. It is incredibly good for mental health – reducing stress, anxiety, and improving outlook. It lowers the risk of many diseases – heart disease, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, and some forms of cancer. The capacity for physical activity increases along with energy. Sleep improves.

Exercise helps us feel better and have more energy. Blood sugar and insulin levels are better regulated. Stress hormones decrease. The likelihood of making better food choices is improved. Regular exercise builds confidence,  which then spills over to other aspects of life.

See how a foundation of regular exercise builds health? 

How Much and What Kind of Exercise is Best? 

Exercise needs to be consistent, challenging, and long-term to be most effective at maintaining or building muscle.

According to the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans 2015 – 2020, adults should engage in muscle-strengthening exercises at least twice weekly.

Strength training activities include:

  • Lifting free weights
  • Using stationary weight machines
  • Resistance band exercises
  • Exercises that use body weight, such as pushups, squats, or lunges
  • Strength training classes in person or on-line (check out YouTube)

Aerobic or “cardio” activity is vital for overall fitness and health too. It helps burn fat, especially dangerous belly fat. It also supports muscle growth and function. Adding quick sprints to your walk or job provides an interval workout, which is especially helpful in preventing muscle loss.

Current guidelines recommend at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity each week. That’s just a 30-minute brisk walk five days each week. You can also combine strength building and cardio exercises – think kickboxing, circuit training, or pause the treadmill every 10 minutes for a set of squats or curls.

The Bottom Line

Maximizing fat loss and minimizing muscle loss is essential for long-term weight maintenance and overall good health. The winning combination to achieve this goal is bariatric surgery, regular exercise, and healthy food choices. They work together to create a change in body dynamics that tips the scale in weight loss’s favor. Hormones are helpful, metabolism is maintained, energy surges, and food cravings are minimized.

It is worth the time and effort to make regular exercise part of your daily routine. Your health depends on it.

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It’s the Pumpkin Time of Year

Everything has gone pumpkin! It’s hard to find a product that doesn’t have a pumpkin flavored version. Many of these foods and drinks are not only bursting a robust pumpkin flavor, but also loaded with added sugar, fat and calories. Look beyond the pumpkin flavored Kit Kats, Cheerios, donuts, ice cream and traditional lattes and you’ll find some delicious pumpkin flavored treats that fit into your post-surgery eating plan.

Pumpkin Flavored Products 



Pumpkin Dip

3/4 cup (6 ounces) 1/3-less-fat cream cheese, softened
1/4 cup Splenda
1/2 cup canned pumpkin
1 tablespoon sugar-free maple syrup
1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon

Combine all ingredients in a medium bowl or blender and mix until smooth. Cover and chill 30 minutes before serving. Serve the dip with peeled apple slices, banana slices, or cinnamon pita chips. Makes 12 servings.

Nutrition information per serving: 40 calories, 1 gram protein, 3 grams fat, 2 grams carbohydrate, 63 mg sodium.

Pumpkin Muffins

3/4 cup pumpkin puree
3 cups almond flour
1/3 cup unflavored whey protein powder
2 tsp baking powder
1/2 tsp baking soda
1/2 tsp salt
1 ½ tsp cinnamon
1/2 tsp ginger
1/4 tsp cloves
1/4 cup butter, softened
1/2 cup Swerve Sweetener or other erythritol
3 large eggs
1/2 tsp vanilla extract
1/4 cup skim milk

Preheat oven to 325F and line 15 muffin tins with paper liners. On a plate lined with two layers of paper towel, spread out pumpkin puree and blot with another layer or two of paper towels–let sit while mixing dry ingredients.

In a medium bowl, whisk together the almond flour, protein powder, baking powder, baking soda, salt and spices.

In a large bowl, beat butter with sweetener until well combined. Beat in pumpkin puree, eggs and vanilla extract. Add in dry mixture and milk. Mix well. Batter will be thick. Fill each muffin cup 2/3 full. Bake 23 minutes or until tops are set and edges are just browned. Let cool in pan 15 minutes. Makes 15 servings.

Nutrition information per serving: 183 calories, 8 grams protein, 16 grams fat, 15 grams carbohydrate (8 grams sugar alcohol, 3 grams fiber), 167 mg sodium.

Pumpkin Roll

1 cup almond meal
1 tsp baking powder
2 tsp cinnamon
1 tsp ginger
½ tsp nutmeg
½ tsp allspice
¼ tsp salt
1 ½ tsp unflavored gelatin powder
¾ cup Splenda
1 cup canned pumpkin
4 eggs
¼ cup canola oil
½ cup water
1 8 oz pkg light cream cheese, softened
1 tsp vanilla
¼ cup sugar-free maple syrup

Preheat oven to 375° F. Prepare pan – spray a 10X15 inch jelly roll pan with nonstick spray, line with parchment paper, spray the top of the parchment paper.

Mix dry ingredients well. Add pumpkin, eggs, oil and water and beat for 2-3 minutes. Pour into prepared pan.

Reduce oven heat to 350° F. Bake for about 15-18 minutes, until toothpick comes out clean. Do not overbake.

Cool in pan for about 5 minutes. Then, cover the pan with a clean dish towel and flip over. Carefully peel off the parchment paper. Then roll the cake up in the dish towel, starting with a long side (so the cake will be long and thin). Let cool for 10-15 minutes.

Mix the cream cheese, vanilla, and syrup together. Unroll cake. Don’t force it to flatten completely. Spread filling on cake and roll the cake back up. Cool completely in refrigerator before serving. Slice into 15 slices and serve.

Nutrition information per serving: 130 calories, 4 grams protein, 10 grams fat, 6 grams carbohydrate, 207 mg sodium. 

Pumpkin Mousse

2 pkg. (1 oz. each) vanilla sugar free, fat free instant pudding mix
3 cups cold fat-free milk
1 can (15 oz.) pumpkin
1 tsp. pumpkin pie spice
1 cup thawed Cool Whip Lite

Beat pudding mixes, milk, and pumpkin spice in medium bowl with mixer or whisk for 2 minutes. Stir in Cool Whip. Pour into individual serving glasses or bowls if desired. Refrigerate for 30 minutes or more. Makes 12 servings

Nutrition information per serving: 60 calories, 3 grams protein, 1 gram fat, 11 grams carbohydrate, 200 mg sodium.

Pumpkin Latte

1 cup Fairlife milk
1 Tbsp. pumpkin puree
1 tsp. sweetener
1 tsp. vanilla extract
1/4 tsp.  pumpkin pie spice
4 oz. strong coffee
Optional: whipped cream

Combine milk, pumpkin puree and sweetener in a small sauce pan. Heat on medium to warm, taking care not to boil.  Remove from heat; stir in vanilla extract, pumpkin pie spice and coffee. Top with whipped cream if desired. Makes 1 serving.

Nutrition information per serving:  86 calories, 13 grams protein, 0 grams fat, 7 grams carbohydrate, 120 mg sodium.

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It’s Time to Get Your Routine Back

For most, COVID 19 has brought major changes to our daily lives–working from home, children at home learning remotely, being out of work or working more hours, cooking at home more, fewer activities, and often less social interaction. The routines we had set up (good or bad) have for most been disrupted. We all function better with routines. They ease our days and give us fewer decisions to make. During this time of change, be sure to intentionally set up a daily routine that best serves your health and wellness goals. Below is an outline of habits to consider including; choose those that are most important to you.

Rise and Shine

Have a consistent wake up time each day. Start the day with 15 minutes or so of intention setting, gratitude or meditation. This focus at the beginning of the day can ease anxiety and start the day on a positive note.

Morning Movement

A fitness routine first thing in the morning helps you to be more consistent, boosts mood and energy throughout the day, and improves cognitive function. To get even more out of this time, pair morning exercise with something inspiring, uplifting, or educational–music, motivational videos, learning videos, books on tape, or documentaries.

Breakfast Fuel

A high-protein breakfast starts your day on the fast track. If you are just not a breakfast person—this is a great time for a protein drink. Take a minute to track food intake throughout the day—a proven success habit.

Morning Snack

Keep this snack small—about 100 calories with 4-10 grams of protein. Some ideas include cottage cheese, yogurt, string cheese, rolled up deli meat, or a little chicken salad on a cracker. Take a short walk if you are able and get your muscles moving.   

Lunch Break

Dig into the healthy meal brought from home. When you’re done, get in a little movement if possible. This is a great time to connect socially–take a walk with a co-worker in person or virtually.

Afternoon Pick-Me-Up

Get up and move–take a stroll, stand up and stretch, or do a few squats. Any type of movement will get blood flowing and boost energy. It’s time for a small protein-rich snack as well.

End of the Workday

Tidy your workspace, turn off your computer and transition from work life to private life. You’ve worked hard and had some stressors—take a few minutes to intentionally relax. A little quiet time, a quick walk, a phone call with a friend, 10 minutes with a good book, deep breathing, or stretching along with a calorie-free beverage can help you rejuvenate.


Connect with family and friends over a healthy meal. A positive aspect to the pandemic is that people are preparing more food at home. Studies show that home cooked meals contain more veggies and fewer calories than those eaten out.

Prep for the Following Day

Before you turn off the kitchen lights, pack your lunch and snacks for the next day. Cut veggies, set out the crock pot and prep tomorrow’s dinner. Then set out work-out clothes and make a “to do” list. Working ahead helps to set the stage for better habits.

Family Time / Me Time

If you have young children, this may be the time for evening bath and book time or game time with older kids. At least a few days a week, be sure to carve out time for doing something you love—read, paint, write, watch a fun show, or go for an evening stroll.


Shoot for a consistent bedtime. Turn off TV and computers at least an hour before to help you fall asleep more easily. Take a few minutes to reflect on the day, express gratitude, and set intentions for the next day. A good night’s sleep (7-8 hours for most) is essential for a healthy weight. A lack of sleep can increase appetite, lower impulse control, and reduce exercise.

The Bottom Line

It all works together, a good night’s sleep, a positive morning attitude, and good a structure throughout the day. It’s time to get back to a healthy routine allowing you to stress less, accomplish more and reach your health and fitness goals.

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Focus on Protein for Best Results

There are big benefits to getting the right amount of protein after surgery–a strong immune system, healthy hair and nails, better weight loss and maintenance, strong muscles, peak energy, and improved appetite control.

While there is an abundance of benefits to meeting daily protein goals, not meeting them can have negative health effects—including weight regain. Getting the right amount of protein each day is all about food choices. It’s not hard to do, if you know what to do. Unfortunately, studies have found that many obtain less than 60 grams of protein a day. And one study found average protein intakes of just 42 grams a day.

Since, a major factor for maximizing weight loss success and promoting good health is getting the right amount of daily protein, let’s get this right.


Benefits to Getting the Right Amount of Protein

Protein for Good Health and Immune Function. Our bodies use protein to preserve muscle tissue, maintain nutritional status, increase feelings of fullness, support a healthy immune system and maintain weight loss.

In this era of COVID, many people supplement with things like vitamin C, zinc, elderberry, and vitamin D to support immune function. It’s important to realize that an optimal protein intake is essential for a peak performing immune system too.

Healthy Hair and Nails. It is not uncommon to see some hair loss 3-5 months after surgery. The main reasons for this are 1) the surgery itself and 2) the rapid weight loss that follows. These stressors cause more of the hair follicles to go into a resting state—then 3-5 months later that hair falls out. To prevent or lessen the severity of hair loss, meet daily protein goals and take vitamin and mineral supplements as recommended.

Keep Your Lean and Improve Health Outcomes. The goal of weight loss surgery is to improve health and reduce excess fat tissue. The reality is that some lean tissue (muscle) is also lost during the weight loss phase. If care is not taken, muscle can account for up to 31% of weight lost.

Reaching daily protein goals has been shown to reduce the amount of muscle tissue lost during weight loss. Not only does this impact weight loss and maintenance, but has many health implications as well. Maintaining muscle helps:

  • Reduce the risk of falls
  • Improve ability to walk and exercise
  • Keeps your heart beating strong—remember the heart is a muscle too
  • Reduce the risk of infections
  • Regulate insulin and blood sugar
  • Live longer—a higher ratio of muscle to fat improves life expectancy
  • Muscle mass is the biggest factor impacting metabolism (the rate at which your body burns calories)

The bottom line: meet daily protein goals to minimize muscle loss and maximize fat loss. You’ll have better results from your surgery and improve your overall health as well.

Peak Energy

Muscle weakness and fatigue are signs of protein depletion. In addition to meeting protein goals daily, recommended vitamin and mineral supplementation and a healthy diet of fresh, unprocessed vegetables, fruits and whole grains is needed to optimize the body’s ability to process energy.  

Improved Appetite Control

Eating six small, protein-rich meals help to reduce appetite. Hunger is not generally a factor immediately after surgery, but months after surgery, some may notice that their appetite begins to increase. An out-of-control appetite often signals a lower protein intake. Protein reduces levels of the hormone ghrelin that causes hunger. It also boosts appetite reducing hormones.


 Regular Exercise Helps Too 

When it comes to muscles, use them or lose them. A good diet will only get you so far, regular exercise is essential to maintaining muscle mass. Ideally, a program that includes both strength training and cardio (like a good brisk walk) is best.

In addition to maintaining muscle mass, regular exercise helps you lose weight and keep it off, keep bones strong, build strength, have greater endurance, improve balance, increase metabolism, boost energy and improved mood.

When you put the parts of a healthy lifestyle together, they build on each other. Regular exercise increases energy, confidence and mood. Those positive feelings help you select healthy foods. The combination of healthy food and exercise gives you more energy, more muscle mass, and a stronger heart. You improve your endurance and the ability to exercise. This wonderful synergy helps you build a healthy, fit body.

Track Your Intake

To assure you’re meeting your daily protein goal, track food and protein intake. This proven tool will help you reach your protein and weight loss goals. Use an app, a pencil and paper log, or create a spreadsheet. It’s easy to assume you’re meeting your goals, but tracking will give you the real scoop.

Where to Get Protein

The majority of protein should come from higher protein foods. These include lean meat/fish/poultry, low fat dairy and eggs, and beans. If protein goals are not met with food, protein drinks can fill in the gaps. Some people choose to start the day with a protein drink; others use them in the evening if their intake of high protein foods was lax on that day.

Liquid Phase

The volume of fluid that your body can handle is very limited during this phase, so it is especially important to use a concentrated source of protein to help meet your goal.  Protein drinks fit this bill and work well for many people after surgery. Make sure the supplements you select have 2 grams or less of added sugar. Keep an eye on what you add to your protein drink so you don’t end up with more calories than you realize–use limited amounts of juice and peanut butter, and avoid adding sugar-free ice cream. Protein drinks are available in both ready-to-drink and powdered forms.

Pureed Foods

Once you start on the pureed food phase, you can add smooth-consistency foods to all of the liquid options.

Soft Foods

In addition to the liquid and pureed options, ground meats, flaky fish, eggs, low-fat cheese, and soft deli meats can now be used to help you reach your protein goal.  At this stage, it is important to learn to take very small bites and chew food to a paste-like consistency before swallowing. Be sure to take a few small bites, pause and check your body signals for acceptance. Stay away from untoasted bread, rice, pasta and solid meats like steak, roast, pork chops, chicken breast, etc.

Regular Foods

Solid meats (chicken, pork, beef, etc) can now be added to the diet. High-protein foods (lean meat / fish / poultry and low-fat dairy products) may begin to replace protein drinks. Many people choose to include a protein drink daily as one of their six meals. Be sure to build your diet around high-protein foods and eat six small meals. 

Six Small Meals

It’s best to divide protein between meals and snacks throughout the day. This doesn’t have to be exact and it can change based on your meal plan for the day. Here’s how it could look:

Protein Goal Breakfast Lunch Dinner Each Snack (3)
60 14 grams 14 grams 14 grams 6 grams
75 18 grams 18 grams 18 grams 7 grams
90 22 grams 22 grams 22 grams 8 grams
110 26 grams 27   rams 27 grams 10 grams

Mix and match the foods listed on the Best Foods to Meet Your Protein Goals chart below to meet your daily protein goals with ease.

Signs of Low Protein Intake

Meeting daily protein goals is certainly easier than correcting the bigger problems that build up from even small daily deficits. It can take months for signs of low protein intake to surface. If you fall short of your protein goal for a day or two, it is unlikely that you will notice any difference. But when you miss that goal day after day, symptoms seem to suddenly show up. Common signs of low protein intake include:

  • Edema (swelling most often in the hands, arms, feet, ankles or legs)
  • Thin, fragile, or loss of hair
  • Low hand-grip strength
  • Changes in appetite (nausea or increased hunger)
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of muscle mass
The Best Foods to Help You Meet Protein Goals
  Full Liquid Pureed Soft Regular
Ready-to-drink protein shakes or protein water x x x x
Protein powders mixed with water or milk x x x x
Protein powders blended with fruit x x x x
Fairlife milk (higher in protein) x x x x
Milk, skim, 1% or 2% x x x x
Carbmaster white or chocolate milk (only at Kroger) x x x x
Carbmaster yogurt smoothies (only at Kroger) smooth x x x
Yogurt, Dannon Oikos Triple Zero smooth x x x
Yogurt, Dannon Two Good smooth x x x
Yogurt, Carbmaster (only at Kroger) smooth x x x
Yogurt blended with Fairlife milk and fruit x x x x
Yogurt, plain Greek, add fruit flavored protein powder x x x x
Pudding, no added sugar (ready to eat) x x x x
Pudding, instant mix – increase protein with Fairlife milk or protein powder x x x x
Soup, blended and strained x x x x
Soup, blended   x x x
Soup, add extra chicken or meat, blended   x x x
Soup     x x
Soup, add extra chicken or meat     x x
Chili, (beef, turkey, chicken, vegetarian) blended   x x x
Chili, (beef, turkey, chicken, vegetarian)     x x
Hot cocoa, no added sugar, made with milk x x x x
Fudgesicles, no added sugar x x x x
Carnation Instant Breakfast, no added sugar x x x x
Refried beans, mashed   x x x
Refried beans     x x
Cottage cheese, mashed   x x x
Cottage cheese     x x
Low fat gravy blended with meat   x x x
Egg substitute (Egg Beaters), lightly scrambled   x x x
Eggs (scrambled, fried, hard or soft boiled)     x x
Tuna, add seasoning and light dressing, finely chopped   x x x
Tuna, add seasoning and light dressing     x x
Tuna, add fresh celery, onion and light dressing       x
Chicken, canned, add seasoning and light dressing, finely chopped   x x x
Chicken, canned add seasoning and light dressing     x x
Chicken salad with fresh vegetables       x
Meat, fish or poultry blended   x x x
Meat or poultry, ground or finely shredded     x x
Fish, flakey, baked     x x
Meat, fish or poultry (moist and tender is best)       x
Deli meat (lean turkey, chicken, ham, or roast beef)     x x
Hummus   x x x
Beans, mashed (avoid baked beans with added sugar)   x x x
Beans (avoid baked beans with added sugar)     x x
Vegetarian burgers     x x
Vegetarian meat substitutes     x x
Tofu     x x
Turkey sausage       x
Cheese, low fat (light mozzarella cheese sticks, light Baby Bell, Light Laughing Cow, 2% milk cheese)     x x
Protein bars, low sugar – great for emergencies       x
Peanut butter, smooth, in liquid recipes (limit due to high fat) x x x x
Peanut butter, smooth (limit due to high fat)   x x x
Powdered peanut butter, in liquid recipes x x x x
Powdered peanut butter   x x x



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